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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

  • ACL ruptures are common athletic injuries leading to knee anterior and lateral rotatory instability.
  • ACL is one of the four main stabilizing ligaments of the knee.
  • ACL prevents forward movement of the tibia in relation to the femur and controls rotational movement of the tibia under the femur.
  • ACL is essential for control in pivoting movements.


Causes -

  • The most common contact injury is when force is applied to the lateral side of the knee that results in a large valgus movement.
  • The most common non contact injury occurs through a rotational mechanism in which the tibia is externally rotated.


Symptoms -

  • The patient often describes an audible ‘pop’, ‘crack’ or feeling of ‘giveway’.
  • Generalized knee pain
  • Feeling of instability preventing return to sport
  • Difficulty in weight bearing
  • Pain, swelling
  • Loss of ROM
  • Tenderness
  • Discomfort while walking


Investigations -

  • Physical examination
  • MRI
  • Xrays


Treatment -

  • Conservative or surgical depending on the tear.
  • Healing & Recovery
  • Strength training
  • Return to sport training
  • Conditioning